The final semester of my Master's degree had me taking a course called Web Mining. Admittedly, I was fatigued at the time of registering for this course, which motivated my registration as the course's description reminded me of one that I took as an undergrad student - Information Storage and Retrieval (ISR).
ISR covered document representation and how to provide query mechanisms for groupings of texts. Typical search engine fodder involving scoring and term weighting which would then culminate into discussions of the vector space model. The course project was to build a crawler to collect and represent texts taken from MIT's collection of Shakespeare writings.
Natural language processing; analysis of textual material by statistical, syntactic, and logical methods; retrieval systems models, dictionary construction, query processing, file structures, content analysis; automatic retrieval systems and question-answering systems; and evaluation of retrieval effectiveness. - Verbatim course description from the University of Northern Iowa
ISR was fascinating as it gave insight to how complex data search can work. One invaluable resource to helping build an intuition for the subject was supplementary lecture provided by Victor Lavrenko through at his Youtube Channel. Specifically, his lecture series labeled ISR3 Vector Space Model. This supplement also complemented thorough reading from "Introduction to Information Retrieval" authored by Manning, Raghavan, and Schütze. The textbook would also be a required reading within Web Mining, where a good chunk of time was also spent discussing language models and how to represent texts.
Web Mining would turn out to be a deceptive course title. It differed from ISR by the exclusion of a project in which one would build a web crawler to harvest information. The course instead revolved around reading various research papers involving the processing of big data while interpreting the results said data provided. These papers asked questions such as "How has happiness shifted since a given event?" or "How does misinformation spread throughout social media communities?"
Core methods underlying development of applications on the Web; examples of relevant applications, including those pertaining to information retrieval, summarization of Web documents, and identifying social networks. - Verbatim course description from the University of Iowa
To answer these types of questions, one needs a basic understanding of network science. Network science is the study of complex networks; In the context of this course, it was an application of social computing to understand how networks of humans interact. It provides the understanding of scale-free networks and how they have a power-law distribution. These were concepts unknown to me prior to taking the course, which provided a pleasant surprise in terms of giving something new and interesting to study.
To provide a basic understanding, "Network Science" authored by Albert-László Barabási was used. The chapters on graph theory, random networks, and the scale-free property provide a great resource in terms of understanding complex social networks. Additionally, Leonid Zhukov's lecture series on YouTube discussing Network Science was another invaluable resource.
An assigned project that I found interesting involved assigning each student a web scrape from a social network. Each student was ambiguously tasked to analyze the data. Below is the result of data analysis that I personally drew from the dataset. I feel this is worth sharing to help those who have a genuine interest in the subject understand the processes involved.*
Consider a dataset which describes interactions between Reddit users for two different subreddits during the span of a specific month.
The given dataset is given as a file which is formatted as an adjacency list. Each line of the file is represented as such:
User1, User2, User3, ... Userx\nwhere User1 replied to a comment made by User2 and another one by User3, and every user up to and including Userx.
Many different software solutions can be chosen for analysis. Gephi is one that is often recommended. Personal experience has found that Gephi is limited; It is handy for network visualization and generating a set of metrics which are indeed indicative of the properties of the network. Unfortunately, there seems to be no mechanism to display the calculated metrics using different scaling factors for any given scatterplot graph. For example, displaying a degree distribution graph in log-log scale doesn't seem to be an available option. To account for this, Python was leveraged, taking advantage of the
numpyarrays are used to interface with
powerlawallows the generation of a fitting function for a bin of data. It can also generate relevant alpha values, (the gamma value with respect to the textbook used in this class), for a power-law distribution function.
powerlawalso interfaces with matplotlib to allow visual representation of these functions.
Relevant class methods are
powerlaw.plot_pdf. Relevant instance methods are
powerlaw.Fit(<args>).plot_pdf. Relevant instance variables are
- Relevant class methods are
matplotlib.pyplotallows plotting of arrays as scatterplot. It has scaling methods to allow for the display of some graph in log-log scale.
It's worth elaborating on what is happening within the represention of the dataset. The existence of some edge in the adjacency list is a means of communication. Communication can be interpreted ambiguously. So it should also be noted that communication here is directed. The node that is representative of a list entry is replying to a comment made by a user within that list entry:
- User1 replied to a comment by User2 and another comment by User3;
- Can be interpreted as (user1 -> user2) and (user1 -> user3)
This was considered whilst initially examining the data. The initial dataset contains 17406 edges which connect 8129 nodes. While parsing through the data, it can be determined that the minimum out-degree is 1 and the minimum in-degree is 0. Likewise, the maximum out-degree is 203 while the maximum in-degree is 144. While examining the network as an undirected graph, the minimum degree is 1 and the maximum degree is 347.
How are the various degrees distributed? The following figures are indicative of distribution:
The associated distribution function seems to be exponential in shape. What is this function? The proportion of some node having degree k must be k raised to a negative power: k-γ, with some constant factor, c. Discovering the value of this power can be made on the observation that kmax ≈ kmin * N(1/γ-1), where N is the total number of nodes in the network.
- Algebraic manipulation can isolate gamma here with application of the logarithm manipulation rules. This generates an approximation of the exponent. The constant factor, c, can be discovered once gamma is found; c = (γ-1)*kmin-γ+1
- γ-out: 2.931904108581441; c-in: 1.931904108581441
- γ-in: 2.586342073080467; c-in: 1.5863420730804672
- γ-total: 2.0875259166393976; c-total: 1.0875259166393976
With gamma values in hand, average expected degrees can be calculated, dependent on statistical moment. This occurs when gamma is in [2,3]. The formula used here is <k> = (γ-1)/(γ-2)*kmin
- <kout> ≈ 2.0730717793724676 ≈ <kin> ≈ <k>
- <d> ≈ lnlnN ≈ lnln(8129) ≈ 2.1975793137150044
- <k>: 2.141
- <d>: 7.07
Curiously, there is a significant difference between the expected distance and the actual distance. This likely is due to the fact the sample set fits in the ultra-small-world regime and the slice taken from reddit doesn't represent the full expected picture.
To confirm a power-law distribution, these distributions can be plotted in a log-log scale. The following figures show that a power-law distribution is indeed in play. The light blue points represent the distribution plot. The dotted blue line overlayed by the red line is a plotting of the power-law distribution function (C*k-γ).
Random networks were generated to contrast this data. The algorithm that created these networks ensured the same node count and edge count. It also ensured there exists no node that does not have an edge – as is the case for the reddit data set. The distribution of these networks differ. Consider the following figures:
The distribution figures are similar for the other four randomized networks. This similarity holds true for the log-log scale plotting of the same data:
The following table of figures are the log-log scale plotting of four other randomized networks, with respect to evaluating out-bound degree:
These distributions are Poisson/binomial. They do not allow for the reasonable probability of having nodes with large degrees, (degrees that approach kmax). This is emphasized by the values given in the x-axis. The maximum node degree here is anywhere from 7 to 9; much smaller than the maximum node degrees of the Reddit dataset. There seems to be a higher occurrence nodes with degree quantities close to the maximum as well. This is shown in the network representation of the involved data, shown in the following figures:
The connectivity of Figure 13 tracks once consideration of average node degree is taken. The average degree measured by Gephi is 2.141. This tracks considering the expected node degree of |E|/|V| which is 17406/8129 = 2.141. Once the average node degree surpasses 1, a randomized graph is in the super critical regime where there exists some gigantic component. This component is not fully connected, though; the average node degree has not reached a point to exceed ln(|V|).
The observation of the paragraph above helps us see the property of the complex network given by the Reddit dataset is a scale-free network; a means to visually support this assertion.
* - My writing on pedagogy makes the following claims:
In the domain of computer science, there are three different types of students:
- There are those who are studying a different discipline who are required to take a CS course as a prerequisite.
- There are those who have heard jobs related to the field pay well, and thus are studying on the prospect of future paycheck.
- Finally, there are the individuals who are genuinely curious of the subject.
Students who are genuinely curious of the subject will succeed. The definition of success is that they will get a degree and they will have a solid and flexible intuition of the machinations of the discipline.
- The students in the other categories will get just a degree.
I feel the need to emphasize on the fact this is for an individual who is genuinely curious. The description of the project as described is ambiguous, but there are metrics listed here that can turn a learning experience into an easy grade. Should this be the case, you are doing yourself as much of a disservice as an instructor who chooses to not provide a new/different dataset.